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False Friends in Slavic Languages


Include Slavic and English annotation in result: meanings, synonyms, grammar, comments

Polish ‘gród’

The database knows following meanings of the Polish word ‘gród’:

  • fortress (syn.: ‘twierdza, forteca’)
  • town (syn.: ‘miasto’)
See also: grad

Semasiological map for ‘*gorodъ < *gordъ’

The database has information related to this term for Belarusian, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Kashubian, Polish, Russian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovenian, Lower Sorbian, Upper Sorbian and Ukrainian.

Polish ‘gród’:

  • The Polish meaning ‘fortress’ is shared by Czech hrad, Slovak hrad, Slovenian grad, Lower Sorbian grod and Upper Sorbian hród.
  • The Polish meaning ‘town’ is shared by Belarusian горад, Belarusian град, Bosnian grad, Bulgarian град, Croatian grad, Kashubian gard, Russian град, Russian город and Serbian град.
  • The meaning ‘hail’ (not present in Polish ‘gród’, translated as ‘grad’) is attested in Belarusian горад, Belarusian град, Bosnian grad, Bulgarian град, Croatian grad, Kashubian grôd, Polish grad, Russian град, Serbian град, Lower Sorbian grad and Ukrainian град.
  • The meaning ‘castle’ (not present in Polish ‘gród’) is attested in Slovenian grad.
  • The meaning ‘degree’ (not present in Polish ‘gród’) is attested in Lower Sorbian grad.

NB: No information yet for Macedonian.

Polish
gród
See also: grad
Meaning:
  1. fortress
  2. town
Map
Bibliography
List
Wikibook
Belarusian
град (Syn.: горад)
Meaning in Polish:
  1. miasto / town
  2. grad / hail
Polish
gród
See also: grad
Meaning in Bosnian:
  1. tvrđava, utvrđenje / fortress
  2. town
Map
Bibliography
List
Wikibook
Bosnian
grad
Meaning in Polish:
  1. miasto / town
  2. grad / hail
Polish
gród
See also: grad
Meaning:
  1. fortress
  2. town
Map
Bibliography
List
Wikibook
Bulgarian
град
Meaning in Polish:
  1. miasto / town
  2. grad / hail
Polish
gród
See also: grad
Meaning in Croatian:
  1. tvrđava, utvrđenje / fortress
  2. town
Map
Bibliography
List
Wikibook
Croatian
grad
Meaning in Polish:
  1. miasto / town
  2. grad / hail
Polish
gród
See also: grad
Meaning in Czech:
  1. fortress
  2. město / town
Map
Bibliography
List
Wikibook
Czech
hrad
Meaning in Polish:
  • twierdza, forteca / fortress
Polish
gród
See also: grad
Meaning:
  1. fortress
  2. town
Map
Bibliography
List
Wikibook
Kashubian
I.   gard
Meaning in Polish:
  • miasto / town
II.  grôdMeaning in Polish:
  • grad / hail
Polish
gród
See also: grad
Meaning in Russian:
  1. крепость / fortress
  2. town
Map
Bibliography
List
Wikibook
Russian
I.   град
Meaning in Polish:
  1. miasto / town
  2. grad / hail
II.  городMeaning in Polish:
  • miasto / town
Polish
gród
See also: grad
Meaning in Serbian:
  1. тврђава, утврђење / fortress
  2. town
Map
Bibliography
List
Wikibook
Serbian
град
Meaning in Polish:
  1. miasto / town
  2. grad / hail
Polish
gród
See also: grad
Meaning:
  1. fortress
  2. town
Map
Bibliography
List
Wikibook
Slovak
hrad
Meaning in Polish:
  • twierdza, forteca / fortress
Polish
gród
See also: grad
Meaning in Slovenian:
  1. fortress
  2. mesto / town
Map
Bibliography
List
Wikibook
Slovenian
grad
Meaning in Polish:
  1. twierdza, forteca / fortress
  2. castle
Polish
gród
See also: grad
Meaning:
  1. fortress
  2. town
Map
Bibliography
List
Wikibook
Lower Sorbian
I.   grad
Meaning in Polish:
  1. grad / hail
  2. degree
II.  grodMeaning in Polish:
  • twierdza, forteca / fortress
Polish
gród
See also: grad
Meaning:
  1. fortress
  2. town
Map
Bibliography
List
Wikibook
Upper Sorbian
hród
Meaning in Polish:
  • twierdza, forteca / fortress
Polish
gród
See also: grad
Meaning:
  1. fortress
  2. town
Map
Bibliography
List
Wikibook
Ukrainian
град
Meaning in Polish:
  • grad / hail

Semasiological Map for *gorodъ < *gordъ

*gorodъ < *gordъ

Meanings:

‘fortress’
‘town’
‘hail’
‘castle’
‘degree’
no such word
no information yet
*gorodъ < *gordъ
Meanings
fortress town hail castle degree
Russian град++
Russian город+
Ukrainian град+
Belarusian град++
Polish grad+
Polish gród++
Kashubian gard+
Kashubian grôd+
Lower Sorbian grad++
Lower Sorbian grod+
Upper Sorbian hród+
Czech hrad+
Slovak hrad+
Slovenian grad++
Croatian grad++
Bosnian grad++
Serbian град++
Bulgarian град++
Meanings fortress town hail castle degree

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