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False Friends in Slavic Languages


Include Slavic and English annotation in result: meanings, synonyms, grammar, comments

Upper Sorbian ‘hród’

The database knows following meanings of the Upper Sorbian word ‘hród’:

  • fortress

Semasiological map for ‘*gorodъ < *gordъ’

The database has information related to this term for Belarusian, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Kashubian, Polish, Russian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovenian, Lower Sorbian and Ukrainian.

Upper Sorbian ‘hród’:

  • The Upper Sorbian meaning ‘fortress’ is shared by Czech hrad, Polish gród, Slovak hrad, Slovenian grad and Lower Sorbian grod.
  • The meaning ‘town’ (not present in Upper Sorbian ‘hród’) is attested in Belarusian горад, Belarusian град, Bosnian grad, Bulgarian град, Croatian grad, Kashubian gard, Polish gród, Russian град, Russian город and Serbian град.
  • The meaning ‘hail’ (not present in Upper Sorbian ‘hród’) is attested in Belarusian горад, Belarusian град, Bosnian grad, Bulgarian град, Croatian grad, Kashubian grôd, Polish grad, Russian град, Serbian град, Lower Sorbian grad and Ukrainian град.
  • The meaning ‘castle’ (not present in Upper Sorbian ‘hród’) is attested in Slovenian grad.
  • The meaning ‘degree’ (not present in Upper Sorbian ‘hród’) is attested in Lower Sorbian grad.

NB: No information yet for Macedonian.

Upper Sorbian
hród
Meaning:
  • fortress
Map
Bibliography
List
Wikibook
Belarusian
град (Syn.: горад)
Meaning:
  1. town
  2. hail
Upper Sorbian
hród
Meaning in Bosnian:
  • tvrđava, utvrđenje / fortress
Map
Bibliography
List
Wikibook
Bosnian
grad
Meaning:
  1. town
  2. hail
Upper Sorbian
hród
Meaning:
  • fortress
Map
Bibliography
List
Wikibook
Bulgarian
град
Meaning:
  1. town
  2. hail
Upper Sorbian
hród
Meaning in Croatian:
  • tvrđava, utvrđenje / fortress
Map
Bibliography
List
Wikibook
Croatian
grad
Meaning:
  1. town
  2. hail
Upper Sorbian
hród
Meaning:
  • fortress
Map
Bibliography
List
Wikibook
Czech
hrad
Meaning:
  • fortress
Upper Sorbian
hród
Meaning:
  • fortress
Map
Bibliography
List
Wikibook
Kashubian
I.   gard
Meaning:
  • town
II.  grôdMeaning:
  • hail
Upper Sorbian
hród
Meaning in Polish:
  • twierdza, forteca / fortress
Map
Bibliography
List
Wikibook
Polish
I.   grad
Meaning:
  • hail
II.  gródMeaning:
  1. fortress
  2. town
Upper Sorbian
hród
Meaning in Russian:
  • крепость / fortress
Map
Bibliography
List
Wikibook
Russian
I.   град
Meaning:
  1. town
  2. hail
II.  городMeaning:
  • town
Upper Sorbian
hród
Meaning in Serbian:
  • тврђава, утврђење / fortress
Map
Bibliography
List
Wikibook
Serbian
град
Meaning:
  1. town
  2. hail
Upper Sorbian
hród
Meaning:
  • fortress
Map
Bibliography
List
Wikibook
Slovak
hrad
Meaning:
  • fortress
Upper Sorbian
hród
Meaning:
  • fortress
Map
Bibliography
List
Wikibook
Slovenian
grad
Meaning:
  1. fortress
  2. castle
Upper Sorbian
hród
Meaning:
  • fortress
Map
Bibliography
List
Wikibook
Lower Sorbian
I.   grad
Meaning:
  1. hail
  2. degree
II.  grodMeaning:
  • fortress
Upper Sorbian
hród
Meaning:
  • fortress
Map
Bibliography
List
Wikibook
Ukrainian
град
Meaning:
  • hail

Semasiological Map for *gorodъ < *gordъ

*gorodъ < *gordъ

Meanings:

‘fortress’
‘town’
‘hail’
‘castle’
‘degree’
no such word
no information yet
*gorodъ < *gordъ
Meanings
fortress town hail castle degree
Russian град++
Russian город+
Ukrainian град+
Belarusian град++
Polish grad+
Polish gród++
Kashubian gard+
Kashubian grôd+
Lower Sorbian grad++
Lower Sorbian grod+
Upper Sorbian hród+
Czech hrad+
Slovak hrad+
Slovenian grad++
Croatian grad++
Bosnian grad++
Serbian град++
Bulgarian град++
Meanings fortress town hail castle degree

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